Peter Jin- dibs on French and Indian War, George Washington, and Albany Plan of Union
Tanner Fettinger dibs Edward Braddock, Whigs, James Otis
Orion Farr dibs Boston Tea Party Samuel Adams Boston Massacre
Michael Dempsey - Dibs on Intolerable Cats, Coercive Acts, Tea Act
Colin Casey - Dibs on Sugar Act, Quartering Act, and Stamp Act
Amanda Pegher- Sons and Daughters of Liberty, Lord Frederick North, and Gaspee incident
John Puszcz-John Locke, Crispus Attucks, Patrick Henry
Dylan Panicucci- Stamp Act Congress, Writs of Assistance, Committees of Correspondence
Emily Gaab- Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Pontiac's Rebellion (1763), salutary neglect
Matty Putnam- Proclamation of 1763, Declaratory Act, the Townshend Acts
Kacie Lynch-John Dickinson; Letters From, Quebec Act, John Locke
Sarah Gorrell- Enlightenment, Massachusetts Circular Letter,
Tyler Mead- Massachusettes Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Peace of Paris (1763)
Marina Franc- George III; crown, Parliament
Lauren Scott- Deism, rationalism, Port Act
Bella Lusardi - Salutary Neglect, Writ of Assistance
Julianna FitzSimons- John Adams, House of Burgesses, John Hancock
People:

  • Samuel Adams
    • Was a founding father, philosopher, and a statesman of the United States of America.
    • Most well known for his involvement in the Continental Congress and resistance organizing during the revolution

  • Crispus Attucks
    • African American
    • Killed in the Boston Massacre
    • Shot by the Redcoats
    • significant because he was regarded as the first martyr in the American Revolution
  • John Locke
    • 17th century philosopher and political theorist
    • "Natural Laws"-rights people have simply have because they're human
    • "citizens have the right to revolt when their rights are not protected"
  • Patrick Henry
    • Led the opposition to the stamp act
    • "Give me liberty, or give me death."
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • French philosopher who influenced America's political philosophy (rationalism, human reason to solve problem in life and society)
  • Sons and Daughters of Liberty
    • a secret society organized for the purpose of intimidating tax agents
    • formed as protest against the stamp act
    • tarred and feathered revenue officials and destroyed revenue stamps
  • Lord Frederick North
    • became the new prime minister of England when the Townsend Acts were put in place
    • urged Parliament to repeal the Townsend Acts because their effect was to damage trade and to generate only a disappointing amount of revenue
  • John Locke-
    • o Major influence on the Enlightenment and on American thinking
    • o 17th century English philosopher and political theorist
    • o Two Treatises of Governmentà reasoned that while the state is supreme it is bound to follow natural laws based on the rights that the people have because they are human.
    • o Argued that sovereignty ultimately resides with the people rather than the state
    • o Citizens had a right and obligation to revolt against whatever government failed to protect their rights.
  • John Dickinson; Letters From-
    • o PA
    • o In response to the Townshend Acts
    • o Colonial leader
    • o Argued forcefully against the new duties
    • o Letters From a Farmer in PA à agreed that Parliament could regulate commerce but argued that because duties were a form of taxation, they could not be levied on the colonies without the consent of the their representative assemblies.
    • o Principle of no taxation without representation was an essential principle of English law.
  • George Washington:
    • Led a small militia group from Virginia to stop the French from building Fort Duquesne but failed and surrendered.
    • Eventually became the Revolutionary War Hero and first president of the United States.
  • George III:
    - King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 until 1801; then was King of United Kingdom until his death in 1820
    - After the French and Indian War, he wanted to change colonial policy in order to reduce British war debt
    - New attitude towards colonies made him unpopular
    - Was King of Britain during the American Revolution
  • Edward Braddock
    • A British general during the French and Indian War
    • Best remembered for his disastrous attack on Fort Duquesne
    • George Washington served as a volunteer officer under him
  • James Otis
    • Most famous for his catchphrase " Taxation without Representation is Tyranny"
    • Argued against the "writs of assistance"
    • Died when he was struck by lightning
  • Whigs
    • There were four presidents who ran under the Whig ticket
      • William Henry Harrison, John Taylor, Zachary Tyler, Millard Fillmore
    • Celebrated the "American System"
    • Criticized for their aristocratic beliefs
  • John Hancock
    • He was a merchant.
    • He also used his boat to smuggle in goods to the colonies to avoid the taxes.
    • Hancock was also the first to sign the Declaration of Independence, and also signed the largest.
    • John Hancock was also wanted by the British and a reward was offered for his capture.
  • John Adams
    • The second president
    • Signed the Declaration of Independence
    • Ambassador to France
    • He defended the British troops that participated in the Boston Massacre because he believed that everyone deserves the right to trial by jury
Events:
  • Quebec Act-
    • o 1774
    • o Passed along with the Coercive Acts
    • o Organized the Canadian lands gained from France
    • o Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec
    • o Set up government without representative assembly
    • o Extended Quebec’s borders to the Ohio River
    • o Angered colonistsà viewed Quebec Act as an attack on American lands because it took away lands they claimed along the Ohio River Valley.
    Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
  • Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
    • attack led by Chief Pontiac against colonial settlements on western frontier
    • Native Americans angered by western movement of European settlers and British refusal to offer gifts like the French had
    • Pontiac alliance of Native Americans in Ohio River Valley destroyed settlements and forts from New York to Virginia
    • British sent in troops to deal with the "rebellion"
  • GaspeeIncident
    • Gaspee as a British customs ship that had been successful in catching a number of smugglers
    • in 1772, the ship ran aground off the shore of Rhode Island
    • a group of colonists disguised as Native Americans ordered the British crew ashore and set fire to the ship
  • The French and Indian War:
    • War fought between the English and French (1754) in the colonies
    • English eventually won with the support from the colonists.
    • known as the Seven Years' War
    • Natives were sided with the French, colonists sided with the British
  • The Peace of Paris (1763)
    • Great Britain signed a treaty with France (while incorporating Spain) following the French and Indian War, which;
      • Gave the British (the winners of the treaty) control over both French Canada and Spanish Florida.
      • The French(the major losers of the war and treaty) gave up the Louisiana Territory, as well as all other claims west of the Mississippi River to make up for what Spain had given to Britain.
  • Boston Tea Party
    • December 16, 1773, a group of protesters from the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Indian raided British trade ships in the Boston harbor and dumped 3 shiploads of tea into the harbor.
    • This led the the blockade of Boston and created tensions that helped bring on the war.
  • Boston Massacre
    • March 5,1770 British army fires into crowd of dock workers, killing 5.
    • Ignited colonies, called for execution
    • Verge of war
    • John Adams represented the soldiers in an English court and saved their lives.
    • Foreshadowed Revolutionary War
Documents:
  • Massachusetts Circular Letter: 1768
    • Written by James Otis and Samuel Adams and sent to every colonial legislature
    • Urged to petition Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts
    • As a result, British officials ordered to withdraw the letter and threatened to dissolve the legislature
    • Colonists conducted boycotts on British goods and Merchants smuggled to avoid Townshend duties

Laws:
  • Quartering Act
    • Citizens in the colonies must provide housing for British soldier's
    • Led to the 3rd amendment in the Bill of Rights which prevented quartering
  • Stamp Act
    • All printed materials must be on stamped paper
    • Meant to pay off the debt from the 7 years war
  • Sugar Act
    • Replaced Molasses Act
    • Was less expensive but was enforced much more

  • Port Act
    • Closed the Port of Boston
    • Prohibited trade in and out of the harbor until the cost of the destroyed tea (from the Boston Tea Party) was paid off
  • Quebec Act-
    • o 1774
    • o Passed along with the Coercive Acts
    • o Organized the Canadian lands gained from France
    • o Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec
    • o Set up government without representative assembly
    • o Extended Quebec’s borders to the Ohio River
    • o Angered colonistsà viewed Quebec Act as an attack on American lands because it took away lands they claimed along the Ohio River Valley.
  • The Massachusetts Government Act (1774)
    • One of the four Coercive Acts, which were directed mainly at punishing the people of Boston and Massachusetts, while bringing the dissidents under control.
      • Essentially reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor.
    The Administration of Justice Act (1774)
    • One of the four Coercive Acts, which were directed mainly at punishing the people of Boston and Massachusetts, while bringing the dissidents under control.
      • Allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of the colonies.
  • The Intolerable Acts (meow) - these were the acts passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party. These acts were the Quebec Act (see above) and the Coercive Acts (see below).
  • The Coercive Acts (1774) - these were four acts intended to punish the people responsible for the Boston Tea Party. There were:
    • The Port Bill - closed the port of Boston, thereby shutting down teade
    • The Massachusetts Government Act - reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the governor
    • The Administration of Justice Act - allowed british royal officials in the colonies to be tried for crimes in England where they would almost never be convicted
    • Expanding the Quartering Act so British troops could be housed in all private homes
  • Tea Act (1773) - This was one of the Townshend Acts, which introduced a tax on tea and caused the Boston Tea Party.
  • Proclamation of 1763
    • forbid colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains to prevent tension between the colonists and Native Americans
    • Colonists were angered since they wanted western access
      • many moved west as an act of defiance
  • Declaratory Act (1766)
    • took the place of the repealed Stamp Act
    • gave Parliament the right to tax & make laws for the colonies for anything
    • led to growing conflict between colonies and England
  • The Townshend Acts
    • new taxes were to be collected from imported tea, glass, and paper
    • revenues were raised in order to pay crown officials in the colonies
      • this made officials independent from the colonial assemblies that used to pay their salaries
    • allowed for officials to search for smuggled goods in private homes
      • officials now only needed a general license (called the Writ of Assistance) instead of a specific warrant from a judge
    • suspended New York's assembly due to its defiance of the Quartering Act
Ideas:

  • Rationalism- the belief that reason is the best source and test of knowledge
  • Deism- the belief that God had established natural laws in creating the universe, but divine intervention in life was minimal
  • Writ of Assistance
    • an official could search for smuggled goods anywhere, whenever they wanted and did not need a judge's warrant
  • Committees of Correspondence
    • started by Samuel Adams in 1772
    • committees that would spread the word about British activities
  • Albany Plan of Union: Ben Franklin proposed the plan at Albany Congress in 1754. It was the earliest attempt to unite the colonists together to fight one common force. However, it failed because the colonists did not want to pay taxes and the British government did not want the colonies to get too strong.
  • Enlightenment: European movement in literature and philosophy
    • believed that people could use human reasoning to solve most of humanity's problems and to correct the "darkness" of the past
    • believed in natural laws based on the right of the people, believed in rationalism and trusted human reason to solve societal and life issues
    • Major influences: John Locke and Rousseau
  • Deism:
    A belief followed by Enlightenment thinkers known as Desists, who believed God had established natural laws in creating the universe, and that the role of divine intervention in human affairs was minimal.

    • rationalism:
    The Deists believed in rationalism and trusted human reason to solve the many problems of life and society, and emphasized reason, science and respect for humanity.
Government Stuff:
  • Salutary neglect
    • little direct control over colonies exercised by Britain
    • navigation laws regulating colonial trade were unenforced
  • Stamp Act Congress
    • In response to Stamp Act representatives from nine colonies met in New York in 1765
    • determined that only the colonies own elected representatives could approve taxes
  • House of Burgesses
    • The first group of elected officials in America
    • It was dissolved by the British government because the House of Burgesses began to support breaking away from England
    • Many of the Founding Fathers got their start as members of the House of Burgesses (George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry)
  • Parliament
    - Mainly dominated at the time by the Whig party, who supported George III
    - Implemented imperial measures over the colonies that were deeply unpopular, such as the Sugar, Quartering, and Stamp Acts
    - Was forced to repeal Stamp Act
    - Implemented Declaratory Act to give Parliament the power to make taxes and laws in the colonies in any circumstance
    - Put in place the Townshend Acts but repealed them because of the new Prime Minister's wishes, Frederick North
    - Passed the Tea Act
    - Passed the Coercive Acts as a retaliation to the Boston Tea Party

Supreme Court Cases: