Elizabeth Smith- John Dickinson, 3/5ths compromise, electoral college system
John Puszcz- tariffs, anti-federalists, great compromise
Tanner Fettinger- Henry Knox, Alexander Hamilton, Edmund Randolph
Peter Jin- Jay Treaty, New Jersey Plan, Virginia Plan
Amanda Pegher- Battle of Fallen Timbers, two-term tradition, "permanent alliances"
Emily Gaab- checks and balances, Mt. Vernon Conference, XYZ Affair
Orion Farr- Congress, national debt, senate
Drew Garger- John Adams, James Madison, John Dickinson
Julianna FitzSimons- Alien and Sedition Acts, Washington's Farewell Address, French Revolution
Marina Franc - Judiciary Act (1789), Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Bill of Rights; amendments
Matty Putnam- Foreign Problems, Economic Weakness and Interstate Quarrels, the Annapolis Convention
Matt Mayer- Gouverneur Morris, Whisky Rebellion (1794), Revolution of 1800
Kate Brennan- Marbury v. Madison, John Marshall, judicial review
Kacie Lynch- infant industries, proclamation of neutrality, slave trade
Lauren Scott- Federal courts, Federalist Era, Public Land Act (1796)
Sarah Gorrell- legislative branch, national bank, Pickney Treaty (1795)
Tyler Mead- political parties, right of deposit, federal courts

  • Gouverneur Morris
    • American statesman and Founding Father of the United States
    • Represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787
    • Author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States, along with James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Dickson
      • Shared the common goal of wanting to strengthen the young nation
    • Credited as the author of the document's preamble
      • Called the "Penman of the Constitution"
    • Advanced the philosophy of being a citizen of a single union of states
  • John Marshall: created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially in the Supreme Court.,
    his efforts made it so that the Supreme Court was made coequal within the government.
  • Federalists- those who supported the Constitution and a strong federal government
    • Led by George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, etc.
    • Believed a stronger central government was needed to maintain order and preserve the Union
    • Emphasized the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation; showed their opponents as merely negative opponents with no solutions
    • Had an advantage of strong, well-organized leaders, but were hurt by the fact the Constitution lacked a bill of rights
  • Henry Knox
    • An artillery officer in the Revolutionary War, he had befriended George Washington and was with him in many of his campaigns
    • After the end of the war Knox became the first Secretary of War in the US
    • He died when he swallowed a chicken bone and it became lodged in his throat, which became infected
  • Alexander Hamilton
    • Helped to write the Federalist Papers
    • Was the first Secretary of Treasury in the US
    • Caused Jefferson to win the 1800 election when he voted for Jefferson, because the Electoral College was tied, pushing Jefferson over Aaron Burr
    • Was killed by Aaron Burr in a duel while Burr was the Vice President
  • Edmund Randolph
    • Was the Second Secretary of State and the First Attorney General in the US
    • Was hostile to the Jay Treaty, throughout his time in Washington's cabinet
    • Was force to resign after he was caught telling the French about discussions that went on in the Cabinet and that the Cabinet was hostile towards the French
  • John Dickinson
    • Helped to make specific articles of the constitution
    • Represented Delaware at the Constitutional convention
    • known as "Penman of the Revolution" (Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania)
    • one of the wealthiest men in the colonies
  • Whisky Rebellion (1794)
    • In western Pennsylvania the refusal of a group of farmers to pay the federal excise tax on whisky challenged the viability of the US government under the Constitution
    • Farmers couldn't afford to pay the tax on whisky
      • Instead they defended their "liberties" with rebellion
    • In response, Washington sent 15,000 state militiamen under the command of Alexander Hamilton
      • The Whisky Rebellion ended without any bloodshed
    • Washington set precedent for the US, applauded for putting down the rebellion
      • Compared with previous government actions in Shays' Rebellion, where the government was unsuccessful
      • Criticized by westerners as unwarranted use of force against the common people
  • XYZ Affair- Americans were angered when French diplomats demanded bribes from U.S. ministers to allow negotiations to begin to resolve the problem of U.S. merchant ships being seized by French warships and privateers; President John Adams wanted to negotiate to come to a peaceful settlement; this event made the Americans want war with France
  • Mt. Vernon Conference- Conference held by delegates from Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania at Washington's home at Mt. Vernon in 1785; the delegates agreed that problems with Articles of Confederation were serious enough to meet again in Annapolis, where all colonies could be represented.
  • Judicial Review: the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional.
  • Battle of Fallen Timbers-The U.S. Army, under the command of General "Mad" Anthony Wayne, defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket in 1794 and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River.
  • The Annapolis Convention (1785)
    • George Washington hosted a conference (NOT the Annapolis Convention) at his home to address the issues in America -only Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania attended
    • Another conference called the Annapolis Convention was held in 1786 in Maryland in an effort to get more states to attend
      • only 5 states sent delegates and they decided that they would hold another convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation
  • French Revolution (1789)
    • The first of the revolutions in France began in 1789
    • The American public were supportive of the French people and wanted to help the people out
    • The American government was still in an alliance with the French monarchy at the time
    • Washington and John Adams kept the United States out of a war in Europe, believing it was best to stay neutral and that the U.S. military was not strong enough
  • The Federalist Papers-a series of 85 highly persuasive essays written for a New York newspaper by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay that became a key element in the Federalist campaign for the Constitution
  • Washington's Farewell Address- a speech Washington gave at the end of his second term as president. In this he suggests that America remain neutral and not get into "permanent alliances." He also warns the government not to divide into the two party system.

  • Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
    - Kentucky written by Thomas Jefferson, Virginia written by James Madison
    - Stated that a state could nullify a federal law if the federal government broke its compact with the states
    - Written in protest of the Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Great Compromise
    • Proposed a Bicameral legislature
    • Senate-states would have equal representation
    • House of Representatives-states would be represented according to population
  • Commercial Compromise- allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, including placing tariffs on foreign imports, but it prohibited placing taxes on any exports
  • Bill of Rights; amendments
- list of rights, drafted mostly by James Madison, adopted in 1791
- pacified Anti-Federalists by outlining rights of citizens to protect them from government
- First Amendment: freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition; separation of church and state
- Second Amendment: right to bear arms
- Third Amendment: people not required to quarter soldiers during peacetime
- Fourth Amendment: government cannot search or seize property unreasonably
- Fifth Amendment: right to due process of law, not forced to give evidence against oneself, double jeopardy
- Sixth Amendment: right to speedy + public trial, right to call + question witnesses
- Seventh Amendment: right to trial by jury
- Eighth Amendment: accused are protected from excessive bail + fines and cruel or unusual punishment
- Ninth Amendment: any rights not specifically mentioned are also guaranteed against government infringement
- Tenth Amendment: powers not delegated to federal government belong to the states or the people
  • Judiciary Act of 1789
    - One of Congress's first laws
    - Established Supreme Court with one chief justice and five associate justices
    - Highest court allowed to rule on constitutionality of state court decisions
    - Allowed system of 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts of appeals
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
    • Put in place by President John Adams and the Federalist-controlled Congress
    • They restricted freedom of speech (people could not criticize the government as freely)
    • The residency requirement for citizens was made 14 years (originally 5 years)
    • These acts gave the President the ability to deport or arrest anyone who was "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States"
  • Public Land Act, 1796: Established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at reasonable prices
  • Anti-Federalists
    • Opposed the constitution and large federal government
    • Party consisted of small farmers and settlers on the western frontier
    • George Mason-Patrick Henry-John Hancock-John Winthrop
  • Two-Term Tradition- Precedent set by Washington for presidents to leave office after serving two terms. Broken by FDR in 1940.
  • "Permanent Alliances"- In his Farewell Address, Washington warned against the United States making "permanent alliances" in foreign affairs
  • Federalists: Those who supported a strong central government and Constitution

Gov Stuff:
  • Tariffs
    • Taxes on foreign imports
    • No taxes on exports
  • Revolution of 1800
    • Passing of political power in 1801 from one political party to another without violence
    • Rare event for the time and indicated that the U.S. constitutional system would endure the strains that were faced
    • Federalist party accepted defeat in the election as Jefferson's party, the Democratic Republicans took control
  • Checks and Balances- system where one branch of government has sufficient power to check the others so the power is spread throughout government
  • Foreign Problems
    • the states never obeyed the Treaty of Paris that required Loyalist's properties to be restored and the debts to foreigners repaid
    • the weak government couldn't stop Britain from restricting US trade and from keeping military outposts on the western frontier
  • Economic Weakness and Interstate Quarrels
    • With reduced foreign trade and unpaid war debts, America feel into an economic depression
    • the government didn't have the power to enforce national taxes and its paper money was worthless
    • the 13 states viewed each other as competition rather than as a united group
      • each state put tariffs and restrictions on interstate trading and fought boundary disputes
  • political parties- Most thought that after the unanimous election of George Washington that political parties wouldn't be needed. This would soon change after the several extensive debates between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist group, and became a permanent part of politics in America.
  • right of deposit- The part of the Pinckney Treaty with Spain which stated that Americans had the right to transfer cargoes in New Orleans without paying duties to the Spanish government.
  • federal courts-Congress had the power to create several other federal courts with less power than the Supreme Court.
  • 3/5ths Compromise- used to determine a state's level of taxation/ representation, it counted each slave as 3/5th of a person
  • Electoral college- Instead of having the people elect the president directly, each state was assigned a number of electors (equal to the number of the state's representatives and senators). It was instituted because the delegates believed that direct democracy may lead to a "mob rule".
  • Legislative Branch- Part of the system of checks and balances; Congress, comprised of the House of Representatives and the Senate
  • National Bank- the Bank of the United States, a privately owned bank chartered by the federal government that allowed the federal government to print paper currency and to use federal deposits to stimulate the economy. Not supported by Jefferson but supported by Hamilton and Washington.
  • Pinckney Treaty (1795)- negotiated by the U.S. minister to Spain, Thomas Pinckney, Spain agreed to open the lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to American trade. the right of deposit was granted to Americans so that they could transfer cargo in New Orleans without paying duties to the Spanish. It also established Florida's boundary line at the 31s parallel and not north of the line, as Spain had claimed. Negotiated as a result of the Jay Treaty, as Spain was threatened by the US's relationship with Britain and wished to consolidate holidings in North America.
  • Jay's Treaty- An agreement reached between England and the United States. England promised to retreat from their forts in the Western United States in return for America's repaying of war debts.
  • New Jersey Plan-a proposal that was the opposite of the Virginia Plan. It called for a single house legislation that favored small states. Each state was allowed only one vote.
  • Virginia Plan-an initial proposal for a bicameral legislation that favored the large states. It called for a strong central government.
    • Congress- The United States version of Parliament, legislative branch, a two-housed legislator consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate
    • Senate- One side in the US congress, everything that goes through a vote in the House of Representatives must also go through Senate. Which can be vetoed by the Executive branch. Has 100 seats.
      - national debt- The National Debt is the amount of money the US has indebted itself with, this can either be from borrowing money from other countries or losing money within itself.
Supreme Court Cases:
  • Marbury v. Madison: The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).