Bella Lusardi: I CLAIM THE FIRST 3 PEDLIGS
Courtney Richmond: Louis and Clark, judicial review, John Marshall
Michael Dempsey: Old Ironsides, war hawks, impressment
Sean Decker: Battle of New Orleans, Treaty of Ghent, Hartford Convention
Elizabeth Smith: Barbary Pirates, Marbury vs. Madison, Embargo Act
Colin Casey: Embargo Act (1807), War of 1812, Andrew Jackson
Matt Mayer: Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810), Battle of Tippecanoe, Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Kacie Lynch: Battle of Lake Erie, Nonintercouse Act (1809),Oliver Hazard Perry,
Alex Zielenski: Aaron Burr, Napoleon Bonaparte, Louisiana Purchase
John Puszcz-John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison
Tanner Fettinger- "Quids", Tecumseh; Prophet, Thomas Macdonough
Marina Franc- Toussaint l'Ouverture, strict interpretation of Constitution
Emily Gaab- Chesapeake-Leopard affair, Battle of the Thames River, Battle of Lake Champlain

Tyler Mead- Creek nation,
Sarah Gorrell- neutrality,
  • People
    • John C. Calhoun
      • Republican Congressman
      • Known as a war hawk
      • South Carolina
      • Eager for war with Britian
      • outspoken about support of slavery
      • supported nullification
    • Henry Clay
      • Republican Congressman
      • Known as a war hawk
      • Kentucky
      • Eager for war with Britian
      • strongly opposed Jackson as President, and lost to Jackson in 1832 for the presidency
    • William Henry Harrison
      • General in the Battle of Tippecanoe
      • Put an end to Tecumseh's efforts to form an Indian Confederacy
      • Destroyed Shawnee Headquarters
    • Oliver Hazard Perry
      • 28- year old American captain
      • naval victory as Lake Erie
      • Declared " we have met the enemy and they are ours"
    • James Madison
      • Was Jefferson's Secretary of State
      • President during the 1808-dominated by European problem
      • Consented to going to war in 1812
    • Francis Scott Key
      • Immortalized the bombing of Fort McHenry.
      • Wrote the Star Spangled Banner, the current national anthem.
    • Barbary Pirates-
      • Off the coast of Africa, pirates forced Washington and adams to pay tributes to the Barbary governments. When a higher sum was demanded, Jefferson sent ships to the Mediterranean.
    • Aaron Burr
      • Rival of Hamilton
      • Born in Newark
      • Vice President 1801-1805
      • Killed Alexander Hamilton in a Duel and fled on the run
      • Tried for treason but charges were dropped
      • Lived out the rest of his days on the run in other countries until returning back to the US in 1812 under a new name
    • War Hawks
      • Young republicans from frontier states
      • Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
      • Wanted war with Britain
  • Toussaint l'Ouverture

    - Led revolution against the French on island of Santo Domingo
    - Caused heavy losses for the French

Andrew Jackson
  • 7th US president
  • Famous for leading the battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812
  • paid off the national debt
  • opposed to National Bank
  • opposed to Electoral College

Thomas Jefferson
  • Wins election of 1800
  • Recognized need for smooth transition of power from Feds to Republicans
  • Democratic-Republican
  • Remained neutral on foreign affairs
  • Kept Hamilton’s nat’l bank/debt plan
  • Limited central government

Napoleon Bonaparte
  • French military and political leader
  • Forced Spain to surrender the Louisiana Territory

John Marshall
  • Federalist
  • Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835.
  • Establishes judicial review

    • Tecumseh
      • The leader of the Shawnee Tribe along with his own confederacy of tribes
      • Allied with the British in the War of 1812
      • Was killed in the Battle of the Thames, his death helped the US turn the tides on the British because of the demoralized Native Americans
    • Thomas Macdonough
      • An American Naval officer
      • Fought in both the Barbary Wars and the War of 1812
      • Most famous for his victory against the British in the Battle of Lake Champlain
      • He won the Battle of Lake Champlain with a severely out matched fleet of boats
    • Tertium Quids
      • Latin for "a third something"
      • Factions of the Democratic-Republican Party
      • Most used when referring to the cross party coalitions of the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans
Events
War of 1812
  • War declared by the U.S. against British Empire
  • US "won"
  • No territorial changes resulted at the end
  • Ended in December 1814
Louisiana Purchase
  • 1803: France could not afford the territory from Spain
  • Jefferson buys entire Louisiana Purchase for $15 million
  • Doubled size of US

Louis and Clark Expedition
  • Before Louisiana was purchased, Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the area.
  • The Journey was from 1804 to 1806
  • It improved relations with Native Americans and developed information about the plants in animals in the area.

Battle of Lake Erie-
  • most important naval battle of the war was fought on LAke Erie in 1813
  • At the end of an unrelenting murderous three hour engagement
  • Captain Oliver Hazard Perry declared proudly " we have met the enemy and they are ours"
  • Paved way for victory at Battle of the thames River

  • Battle of Tippecanoe
    • In an effort to defend native lands, Tecumseh attempted to unite all of the tribes east of the Mississippi River.
      • White settlers became suspicious of Tecumseh and persuaded General William Henry Harrison to take aggressive action
    • In the Battle of Tippecanoe Harrison destroyed the Shawnee headquarters and put an end to Tecumseh's efforts to form an Indian confederacy
  • Battle of Horseshoe Bend
    • On March 1814, General Andrew Jackson ended the power of an important British ally, the Creek nation.
    • The victory not only eliminated the Native American ally but also opened new lands to white settlers.
Battle Of New Orleans
  • Andrew Jackson lead a force of frontiersmen, free blacks, and Creoles, halting a major British effort to control the Mississippi River at New Orleans
  • Although impressive, the victory was meaningless, for the battle, fought on January 8, 1815, was won two weeks after a treaty ending the war had already been signed in Ghent, Belgium
Treaty of Ghent
  • Madison's government, recognizing that the Americans would be unable to win a decisive victory, sent peace commissioners to Ghent, Belgium to discuss terms of peace with British diplomats
  • Agreed upon on Christmas Eve, 1814, the terms were
    • a halt to the fighting
    • the return of all conquered territory to the prewar claimant
    • recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States
  • Ratified by the Senate in 1815, the treaty said nothing at all about the grievances that led to war, and Britaing made no concessions concerning impressment, blockades, or other maritime diffferences
  • The war ended in stalemate with no gain for either side
Hartford Convention
  • Before the conclusion of the war, the New England states had come very close to seceding from the Union
  • Radical Federalists in New Enland, bitterly opposed to both the war and the Republican government in Washington, urged that the Constitution be amended and that, as a last resort, secession be voted upon
  • A special convention was held in Hartford, Connecticut in December 1814 to consider these matters
  • Delegates from the New England states rejected the radical calls for secession, but, to limit the growing power of the Republicans in the South and West, they adopted a number of proposals, including one that called for a two-thirds vote of both houses for any future declaration of war.
  • The Battle of New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent ended criticism of the war and stamped the opposing Federalists as unpatriotic
Old Ironsides
  • The USS Constitution
  • America's first Ship-of-the-line
  • Called Ironsides because cannonballs from the British ships would bounce off the sides of the ship, as if it were made of iron
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
  • 1807- British warship Leopard fired on U.S. warship Chesapeake
  • Three Americans killed and four taken captive and impressed into British navy
  • Resulted in Anti-British feeling and call by many Americans for war
  • Jefferson resorted to diplomacy and economic pressure rather than war
Battle of the Thames River
  • 1813- Perry's victory on Lake Erie helped pave the way for Gen. William Henry Harrison's victory here. Near Detroit.
  • Tecumseh killed
Battle of Lake Champlain
  • 1814- Thomas Macdonough defeats British fleet on Lake Champlain
  • Forced British to retreat and abandon their plan to invade NY and New England.

Documents

Laws
  • Embargo Act (1807)
    • In response to violations against US neutrality
    • No U.S. ship may trade with a foreign country
  • Nonintercourse Act (1809
    • after the repeal of Jefferson's disastrous Embargo Act
    • MAdison hoped to end economic hardships while maintaing country's rights as a neutral nation.
    • PRovided that Americans could now trade with all nations except Britain and France
  • Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810)
    • While economic hardships continued, Nathaniel Macon introduced a bill that restored U.S. trade with Britain and France.
    • Macon's Bill No. 2 stated that if either Britain or France formally agreed to respect U.S. neutral rights at sea, then the United States would prohibit trade with that nation's foe.

Ideas

Judicial Review
  • Established by John Marshall
  • Allowed the Supreme Court to decide whether a desicion by Congress or the President was constitutional.
Impressment
  • British took American Sailors and goods off American ships and forced (or impressed) the sailors into the British Navy
Neutrality:
  • The idea of having an undeclared bias. Jefferson attempted to stay neutral with all foreign powers and rejected the idea of permanent alliances. The Barbary pirates, the French, and the British all provoked the US to violate this idea.

Strict Interpretation of Constitution
- ideal that the Constitution should be interpreted strictly, gov't should not have "implied" powers
- Supported by Jefferson, opposed by Hamilton
- During presidency, Jefferson set aside his belief in strict interpretation to make the Louisiana Purchase
Government stuff
  • Creek Nation- An important British ally in the War of 1812. Jackson eliminated this ally in his Southern campaign.
  • Embargo Act-
    • Pushed through Congress by Jefferson to avoid war
    • Prohibited US ships from selling foreign products
    • Hurt the US economy and England (who the act was aimed at) found other people to trade with.


Supreme Court Stuff
  • Marbury vs. Madison-
    • 1803
    • William Marbury sues Madison for not delivering Adam's commission for Marbury becoming a judge.
    • The court said that under the Judiciary Act, Marbury would get the job, but that the Judiciary act was unconstitutional.
    • Established judicial review.