Courtney Richmond: Treaty of 1818, Florida Purchase Treaty, Monroe Doctrine.
John Puszcz; Era of Good feelings, sectionalism, james monroe
Peter Jin: Panic of 1819, Tariff of 1816, Protective Tariff
Elizabeth Smith- McCulloch v. Maryland, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Gibbons v. Ogden
Matt Mayer: Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817), Tallmadge Amendment, Missouri Compromise (1820)
Kalin Hagedorn: implied powers, Stephen Decatur, Erie Canal
Marina Franc: Andrew Jackson, Eli Whitney (interchangeable parts), and cotton gin
Bella Lusardi: American system, Missouri Compromise, market revolution
Tyler Mead- Lancaster Turnpike, Samuel Slater, Robert Fulton; Steamboats
Kacie Lynch:Fletcher V. Peck, corporations, unions
Amanda Pegher- specialization, industrialization, and railroads
Sean Decker- National (Cumberland) Road, factory system, Lowell System
Kate Brennan: Henry Clay's American System, Second Bank of the US, John Marshall
Matty Putnam: Cultural Nationalism, Economic Nationalism, Clay's Proposals

  • James Monroe
    • Fought in Revolutionary war
    • Was Madisons Sec. of State
    • Won both presidential elections by a landslide
    • Won in 1816 and 1820
  • John Marshall
    • Chief Justice during Monroe's term
    • Created the precedent of judicial review
    • Ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the Supreme Court
    • Persuaded many Republicans that the Constitution held the country together
  • Stephen Decatur
    • served as Midshipman on the USS United States, 1798-1799, War with France
    • recaptured the USS Philadelphia from the Tripolitans in the harbor of Tripoli and destroyed her
    • distinguished for the capture of the HMS Macedonian
    • commanded the USS United States
    • commanded the President and a squadrom of three vessels in the West Indiesand flew the pennant of Commodore
  • Samuel Slater
    • Immirant from Britain
    • Memorized the British secrets for building cotten-spinning machines
    • Helped establish the first U.S Factory in 1791.
  • Robert Fulton
    • Developed the steamboat the Clemont
    • Made a successful trip up the Hudson River, the first steamboat to do so
    • Began the age of mechanized, steampowered travel
  • Andrew Jackson
    - 7th President of the United States
    - Hero of the Battle of New Orleans
    - In 1818, to stop raids from outlaws in Florida, Jackson led militia into Florida, hanging Seminoles and driving out Spanish governor
    - Hated the Bank of the United States
  • Eli Whitney
    - Invented cotton gin in 1793
    - Created interchangeable parts system for rifles for War of 1812
    - Interchangeable parts became basis for mass production in factories
- his invention made it so greedy plantation owners put more work on their slaves and expected more out of them

  • Panic of 1819: an economic depression that was caused by over production and reduced demand in goods.
  • Erie Canal:
    • Canal in NY that runs about 363 miles
    • opened in 1825
    • It was the first transportation system between the eastern seaboard (New York City) and the western interior (Great Lakes) of the United States that did not require portage, was faster than carts pulled by draft animals, and cut transport costs by about 95%.
    • The canal fostered a population surge in western New York State, opened regions farther west to settlement, and helped New York City become the chief U.S. port. It was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. In 1918, the enlarged canal was replaced by the larger NewYork State Barge Canal
  • Treaty of 1818: A treaty between the United States and Great Britain resolving boundary disputes, and allowing for joint settlement of Oregon.
  • Florida Purchase Treat: Spain turns over it's possessions of East and West Florida to the United States.
  • National (Cumberland) Road- a paved highway and major route to the west extending more than a thousand miles from Maryland to Illinois
    • It was begun in 1811 and completed in the 1850s, using both federal and state money, with the different states receiving ownership and segments of the highway
  • Cotton Gin
    - Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
    - Separated cotton from cotton seeds easily, making cotton highly profitable
    - Since principal cash crop in South was cotton, slavery increased because of demand for cotton pickers
- Slave owners put more work on their workers and expected more out of them, didn't exactly make a slave's work easier

  • Sectionalism- Much political tension over slavery and factions began to develop with in the parties
  • Era of Good Feelings-marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans
  • Henry Clay's American System: plan for economic growth- establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the country's transportation system.
  • Corporations -
    • 1811 New York passed a law that made it easier for a business to incorporate and raise capital by selling shares of stock
    • Other states soon followed
    • Owners of corporations risked only the amount of money that they invested in a venture
    • Changes in state corporation laws facilitated the raising of large sums of capital needed to build factories, canals, and railroads.
  • Monroe Doctrine: Prevents Europe from interfering with the affairs of countries in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Clay's Proposals: after several months, Clay was finally able to pass these 3 bills (his compromise plan) through Congress
    • Missouri would be admitted as a slaveholding state
    • Maine would be admitted as a free state
    • Above the latitude 36º 30' of the Louisiana Territory, slavery would be prohibited
  • Factory system- the first U.S. factory was established by British emigrant, Samuel Slater in 1791
    • After that, new factories continued to prosper thanks to the embargo, War of 1812, and tariffs enacted by Republican congresses, stimulating domestic manufacturing
    • New England emerged as the country's leading manufacturing center in the 1820's due to the region's abundant waterpower and decline in maritime industry and farming, providing for the availability for capital for manufacturing and a ready supply of labor
    • As the factory system expanded, it encouraged the growth of financial businesses such as banking and insurance
  • Lowell System- system of recruiting young farm women and housing them in company dormitories first utilized by textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts to compete with the lure of cheap land in the West
    • Widely imitated by the 1830s, this system was also expanded to an extensive use of child labor
  • Cultural Nationalism: nationalism was embraced by most young people of America who were excited about moving west and weren't very interested in Europe since the Napoleonic wars and the War of 1812 had ended
    • Believed that America was entering a time of unlimited prosperity
    • Everything included a Patriotic theme, including public school books
    • Paintings of revolutionary heroes were well known and adored
  • Economic Nationalism
    • A political movement that paralleled cultural nationalism
    • Two parts of it included the building of roads and canals, and protecting American industries from European competition
  • Market Revolution
    • Interdependence among people
    • No more self-sufficient households
  • Specialization- the development of skills in a specific kind of work
  • Industrialization- the development of industries for the machine production of goods
  • Railroads- type of transportation; enabled the growth of the West

Government Stuff:
  • Tariff of 1816: A protective tariff that helped American industry by raising the prices of British goods. (These goods were often cheaper and better in quality than American goods)
  • Protective Tariff: A tax on imported goods that is meant to protect the sales of domestic goods.
  • Second Bank of the US: John C. Calhoun introduced this to help the financial stability of the country by issuing national currency and regulating state banks. It mainly benefited the East but helped growth in the West and South.
  • Implied Powers:
    • those powers authorized by a legal document fromt the constitution which, while not stated seemed to be implied powers expressily stated
    • John Marshall invoked the power of Implied powers of a government in the court case of McCulloch v. Maryland
    • powers exercised by Congress which are not explicitly given by the constitution itself but necessary and proper to execute the powers which are
  • Lancaster Turnpike- A road that was built in the 1790s that connected Philadelphia with the rich farmlands around Lancaster.
    • Led to construction of other smaller roads linked to roads leading to other major cities.
  • American System
    • Henry Clay’s plan to grow the nation’s economy
    • Protective tariffs
    • National Bank
    • Internal improvements (infrastructure)
  • The Missouri Compromise
    • Balance in the senate: slave states and free states
    • Missouri would upset the 11 to 11 balance
    • Clay proposed:
      • o Missouri would be a slave state
      • o Maine would be a free state
      • o All land of the Louisiana Purchase above 36 30 was free land
  • The Tallmadge Amendment
    • Proposed by James Tallmadge from New York regarding the debate about the Missouri question
      • Proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission
      • Amendment called for:
        • Prohibiting further introduction of slaves into Missouri
        • Requiring the children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at the age of 25
    • If adopted, the Tallmadge Amendment would have led to the gradual elimination of slavery in Missouri
    • Amendment was defeated in Senate-southerners saw it as the first step in northern effort to abolish slavery in all states
  • The Missouri Compromise (1820)
    • Politicians in Congress had attempted to preserve a sectional balance between the North and the South regarding the ratio of free states to slave states.
    • Population in the North grew more rapidly than in the South, by 1818 the northern states had a majority of 105 to 81 in the House of Representatives.
      • However, in the Senate there was a balance of 11 slave states to 11 free states
        • With balance, southern senators could block legislation that threatened the interests of their section
    • Missouri's bid for statehood alarmed the North because slavery was established there.
      • If Missouri came in as a slave state, it would unbalance the political balance in the Senate, favoring the South.
      • In addition, Missouri was the first state in the Louisiana Purchase area to apply for statehood
        • Southerners and northerners worried about the future of new territories applying for statehood from the Louisiana Purchase
  • Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
    • British and American negotiators agreed to a major disarmament pact
    • The Rush-Bagot Agreement strictly limited naval armament on the Great Lakes
      • Agreement was extended to place limits on border fortifications as well
    • Border between the United States and Canada was to become the longest unfortified boundary in the world

Supreme Court Cases:

  • Fletcher V. Peck- 1810
    • involving land fraud in GA,
    • Marshall concluded that a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract.
    • First time that the Supreme Court declared a state law to be unconstitutional and invalid
  • McCulloch v. Maryland- 1819
    • The court ruled that States cannot tax the federal government
    • Also confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward- 1819
    • NH wanted to make Dartmouth College into a state school by revising its colonial charter
    • The court ruled that the charter was protected under the Constitution as a contract
    • Upholds the sanctity of contracts
  • Gibbons v. Ogden- 1824
    • reinforces the government's rights to regulate interstate commerce
    • Marshall rules against NY granting steamboat monopolies