Emily Gaab- sectionalism, Daniel Webster, Industrial Revolution
Amanda Pegher- Native American removal, environmental damage, King Cotton
Kacie Lynch- Germans, Old Northwest, immigration
Tanner Fettinger- Nativists, American Party, Great Plains
Eric Reinhard- Eli Whitney, the West
Alex Zielenski: white settlers
Marina Franc- Irish (potato famine), Denmark Vesey & Nat Turner
Bella Lusardi- slave codes, Great Plains
Lauren Scott- unions, free African Americans, Cyprus McCormick; John Deere
Kate Brennan- mountain people, the peculiar institution, the frontier
Mike Dempsey - new cities, planters, poor whites
Elizabeth Smith- urbanization, Cyrus McCormick, John Deere
Matty Putnam- The North, Labor, Agriculture


  • Germans- economic hardships and the failure of democratic revolutions in 1848 caused over one million Germans to come the US. (1840's-1850's). Most had modest means and considerable skills as farmers and artisans.Moving westward in search of cheap,fertile farmland, established homesteads throughout Old Northwest and generally prospered. At first political influence was limited, but as they became more active in public life they were strong supporters of public education and against slavery.
  • Mountain People- a number of small farmers that lived on frontier conditions in isolation from the rest of the South, along the slopes and valleys of the Appalachian and Ozark mountains. These people dislikes the planters and their slaves.
  • Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner
    - Both led major slave uprisings in 1822 and 1831 respectively
    - Revolts were quickly and violently suppressed
    - Gave hope to enslaved African Americans
  • John Deere- invented the steel plow
  • Cyrus McCormick- invented the mechanical reaper
  • white settlers: white nomads moving about the territory. Traveled west specifically in search of gold and clashed often with the natives
  • Nativists-
    • A group of people that gained prominence during the mid 1800s
    • They were against immigration
    • These people have incited riots against immigrants with their xenophobia
  • American Party-
    • Also known as the Know Nothing Party
    • Was a nativist party that was xenophobic as well as anti-Catholic
    • They caused violence against Catholic because of their perceived role in flooding the poles with non citizens
  • Eli Whitney
    • Inventor of the cotton gin, revolutionized cotton farming, led to increase in number of slaves in US
    • also invented interchangeable parts, helped begin the Industrial Revolution
  • Daniel Webster
    • From Massachusetts
    • Referred to the North, South, and the West in terms of the four main points of a compass to portray the dangers that these sectionalist divisions held for the United States.
  • Poor whites
    • Three fourths of the south's population could not own good land so they owned no slaves
  • Planters
    • Richer white farmers who lived in and controlled the good farmland
  • Free African Americans
  • -allowed African Americans to maintain a family and sometimes own land, but did not mean economic or political equality

  • Unions
  • organized by urban workers to protect rights and interests


  • Old Northwest- German immigrants moved west in search of cheap, fertile farmland, they generally prospered in this area.
  • Immigration- 1820- 8,00 immigrants, 1832--> Increase. After 1832 the amount of immigrants never fell below 50,000 a year. In 1854--> 428,000 immigrants! Between the 1830's-50's over 4 million immigrants arrived. Many immigrants remianed near the New York area, while some traveled to the Old Northwest, even fewer traveled to the South.
  • Irish Potato Famine
    - 1820-1850 half of all immigrants came from IReland
    - potato famine in Ireland drove them to America
    - Irish were discriminated against because of Catholic faith
    - Joined Democratic Party
  • Native American Removal- they were cajoled, pushed, or driven westward as white settlers encroached on their original homeland
  • Industrial Revolution
    • originally centered in the textile industry, but shifted to northern factories producing a wide range of goods by the 1830s.




  • "Peculiar Institution-" referred to slavery; was "peculiar" because southern whites were uneasy with the fact that slaves were human beings and felt the need to continually defend slavery using historical and religious arguments to support their claim that it was good for both slave and master.
  • The Frontier- the frontier constantly shifted, but the concept remained the idea of moving Westward and having a fresh start.
  • The North- made up of the Northeast (New England & Mid-Atlantic states) and Northwest (Ohio to Minnesota)
    • Northern states were well connected due to improved transportation
    • lots of economic growth due to commercial farming and industrial innovation
  • Labor- independent farmers and artisans now relied on wages form factory owners
    • formed unions to protect themselves against issues like low pay, long work days, and unsafe working conditions
    • 1st US labor party founded in 1828
      • Unions gained a victory in the Commonwealth v. Hunt case when Supreme Court ruled that "peaceful unions" had the right to negotiate labor contracts with their employees
      • improvements limited by depressions, employers and courts that disliked unions, and lots of cheap immigrant labor
  • Agriculture- grains like corn and wheat became very profitable in the Old Northwest
    • recently invented steel plows and mechanical reapers increased the efficiency and size of farms
    • farms could save money by buying machines and only hiring workers during the harvest season
  • Urbanization- many people began to move into the cities, causing poor, yet cheap, housing, bad working conditions, and poor sanitation.
  • Environmental Damage
    • European Americans had little understanding of the fragile nature of land and wildlife
    • would clear entire forests, exhaust the soil with poor farming methods, and decimate the beaver and buffalo populations to the brink of extinction
  • The Great Plains
    • An area of land that covers Colorado, Kansas, Montana, NEbraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming
    • Became important because it was a place where new states were coming from, and where they would fight over popular sovereignty
  • The West
    • First explored by Louis and Clark, the West was enshrouded in mystery to most Americans
    • To some, was the promise of land and opportunity, enticed many settlers to try their luck
    • home to many Indian tribes, created much conflict with settlers moving west
    • Indians were gradually pushed back as more and more settlers moved west
  • Sectionalism: loyalty to a particular region
    • led to Civil War between the North and the South in the early 1860s.
  • New Cities
    • Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Cincinnati, and St. Louis
    • Served as transfer points for interstate Commerce

Government Stuff

  • King Cotton- by the 1850s, cotton provided two-thirds of all U.S. exports and tied the South's economy to its best consumer: Britain

Supreme Court Cases